Juvenal Satire 1: comparison with Gifford (1802)

In content, Juvenal's first satire is an indictment of the thousand nuisances of life in Rome; in purpose, it's a "programmatic" poem, i.e. it lays out the scope the author's endeavour and the purposes of satire.

You can read my version by itself, or compare my version with Juvenal's original or with the versions of Stapylton (1647), Dryden (1692), or Gifford (1802), all of whom use heroic couplets like I do.

Jack Mitchell (2001)

To listen ever, never settle scores—
Is that my fate, though croaking Cordus bores
The world with his
Theseids? Scot-free,
Therefore, must one recite me comedy
Another love-poems, ’til some Telephus
Destroys my day, his strength voluminous,
And dreads no retribution, only bested
By Orestes, whole-scroll, palimpsested
Margin-stuffed, to shut up oft requested?
No one knows his own house half as well
As I know Mars’s solitary dell,
Aeolus’ cliffs, or nearby Vulcan’s cave,
What the winds are up to, just which knave
Aeacus daily tortures, whence some dude
Is busy thieving fleeces golden-hued,
Just what Monychus’ ash-trees’ magnitude!
Fronto’s orchard echoes with such stuff
Forever, marble shudders, cries “Enough!”
And cracks, though still the reader will not stow it:
’T’s all the same, from least to greatest poet.

I’ve also dodged a teacher’s punishments
And freely offered Sulla my two cents’:
“It’s time to call it quits.” The bards are loose,
You meet them everywhere, so what’s the use
Of sparing paper sentenced to their noose?
Why ’cross this battlefield I’d rather run,
O’er which with fearsome steeds Arunca’s son
Once raced, I’ll now explain, if all here shall
Take time to calmly hear my rationale.
With supple eunuchs walking down the aisle,
With Maevia hunting gladiator-style
(Her tits exposed), with one whose rusty shear
Once trimmed my fledgling beard these days the peer
(Thanks to his cash) of each aristocrat;
And with Canopus’ servile kitty-cat,
Crispinus, chunk of the Egyptian slum,
Hitching the purple while the sweat runs from
That massive summer ring upon his knuckle
(Any heavier and he’d quickly buckle):
Satire’s the hard thing
not to write these days.
For who’s so patient with the loathsome ways
This city lives, whose iron will’s so strong
That he can bite his tongue when comes along
Matho’s new litter, bursting from each end
With Matho; then the one who sold his friend,
His high-placed patron, ready now to grab
Whatever crumb nobody else could nab
From our gnawed-down nobility, whose powers
E’en Massa fears, whom even Carus showers
With bribes, to whom Latinus trembling sent
Thymele to assure his kind intent!
You’re shoved aside by worthies such as these,
Who labour all night long for legacies,
Since nowadays to wealth there is no way as
Wide as rich old pussies. Proculeius
Gets but one part, Gillo gets eleven:
Heirs by length of cock raised up to heaven.
Let them take the price of swollen blood,
And turn as pale as he who steps unshod
Upon a snake, as he wh’ awaits the nod
To speak at Lugdunum. Shall I explain
With what dry rage, with what o’erwhelming pain
My liver seethes when flunkies break a way
Between the crowd for one who every day
Defrauds his helpless ward? For who’s abashed
About disgrace once that fat cheque is cashed?
God-censured, th’ exile Marius drinks deep
All night, while you, victorious province, weep.

Are not such vices worth Venusia’s candle?
Shan’t I take them up? Not rather handle
Hercules or Diomede, the roar
Within some labyrinth, the ocean floor
Smacked by a boy, the flying contractor?
When such a troop of husband-pimps connives
To rent away their disenfranchised wives,
To watch the floor and snore though wide awake!
Yet he who seeks a cohort takes the cake,
Who blew his family fortune on a horse,
Who like Automedon now flies the course
Down the Flaminian Way with wheels awhirl
And grabs the reins, his ego to unfurl
Before his sweetheart, th’ army-coated girl!
You’ll fill thick notebooks where the alleys meet
When on six necks now marches down the street
The curtains open, naked as you please
(So reminiscent of Maecenas’ ease),
Some forgerer, whose signatory stealth
And moistened ring brought happiness and wealth;
And next a puissant dame, her wine accursed
With toad’s-blood for to quench her husband’s thirst:
She’ll teach the rustic girls next door to souse
And mourn and blithly bury every spouse,
More skillful than Locusta! Try your hand
At what they punish with Gyara’s strand
Or years in jail, if you would make a name:
The honest man will starve to death of fame.
Their gardens, rank, and furniture are due
To crime, the ostentatious silver too.
Who’ll sleep for thought of in-law daughters bought
By husbands’ fathers, wedding vows for nought
Or teenage years in womanising shot?
If talent fails me, wrath will write my verse,
Howbeit: mine, Cluvenius’, or worse.
From when Deucalion climbed the lofty mount
By tacking o’er the cloud-fed main, the fount
Of prophecy to seek, and rocks grew soft
And hot, and women with their clothing doffed
Were shown by Pyrrha to their husbands oft,
The doings of mankind, vows, fears, and rage,
Lusts, joy, and babblings — fodder for my page.

For when was vice more trouble to escape?
Whenever did the jaws of greed thus gape?
Whenever gambling thus so universal?
Leave your purse, but bring for quick dispersal
Treasure-chests indeed. What battles dire,
Each with his own accountant for a squire:
Pure madness, no, to drop a hundred thou’
And leave your shirtless servant shiv’ring now?
What sire of ours put all those houses up
On courses seven secretly to sup?
Yet nowadays the scanty dole is stuck
Before the door for toga’d mobs to pluck;
Though still the patron peers into your face
For fear that by deceit you make your case:
It’s you, alright; he bids the butler call
Forth first the Trojan-blooded founders all —
They too upon the doorstep meekly yearn:
“First it’s the Praetor, then the Tribune’s turn.”
But no, the freedling’s first. “I’m first in line,”
He says. “So what? Who cares? First place is mine!
Though born beside Euphrates’ lazy flow
(As glancing at my window’d ears you’d know
Though I’d deny it); still each year now I’ve
Four hundred thousand, since my shops are five.
Sure, what’s the point of that fat purple band
Now that Corvinus o’er Laurentian land
Herds flocks of sheep? For I’m more rich, more great
Than Pallas or Licinus.” Let the tribunes wait!
Let wealth prevail! Lest such a man give in
To sacred titles, whose chalk-whitened shin
Appeared just yesterday within this town,
For nowadays no god has such renown
As wealth in Rome, though yet, o hateful Cash,
To your new shrine no consul cut the sash,
Nor have we decked your holy altar’s block,
Nor with Good Faith and Virtue set your rock,
Alongside Peace, and Concord with its flock!
But when the highest office computates
Its yearly dole, then sums up its estates,
What of the rest, who from the same amount
Must reckon clothes and shoes into account
And bread and warmth? A vast array of litters
Hunts that hundred bucks, the counterfeiters
Thronged: a sickly or a pregnant wife
Will trace her husband’s steps; deceit is rife,
As with the well-known trick another louse
Points out the curtained chair wherein his spouse
Never existed. “Galla’s there,” says he.
“Let’s have it quick - you don’t have faith in me?
Come out, my dear! Oh, quiet, she’s asleep.”

The day we to a lovely schedule keep:
The dole, the forum, then well-schooled Apollo,
Vict’ry statues where (what’s hard to swallow)
Some Egyptian Arabarches dared
To set his titles: let no man be scared
Thereon to piss and more! Now from the laird
The tired clients wend their homeward way
(Though hope for dinner is the last to say
Goodnight) to buy their cabbage and their fuel;
Meanwhile their king o’er fish and fowl will drool,
Supping alone (though empty tables spread
About are wide, antique, unblemishèd),
His appetite his patrimony’s doom,
His parasites endangered; yet to whom,
Does luxury so miserly not stink?
Down what a gullet can a whole boar sink?
The beast was born for friendly cheer and drink!
And yet you’ll pay when to the bath you puff
With bloated belly, into which you’d stuff
That unchewed peacock meat; then in the buff
Alack! It’s death, without a testament:
The happy news around the room is sent,
Your funeral starts with cheers of ill-intent.

No further vice the future knows to add
To life these days; our children ape the fad,
They act like us; vice is the slippery slope.
So now, full speed, o good ship Misanthrope!
Yet “How,” perhaps you wonder, “can you cope
With satirising evil of such scope?
Will you be free to write a single page
Like our forefathers wrote in simple rage?
“What man do you suppose I dare not name?
Who cares if Mucius read and rant and blame?”
Just try the same with Tigellinus, friend,
And as a human torch you’ll make an end
Like those who hang and sizzle to applause
’Til each his furrow ’cross th’ arena draws.”
So he who’s poisoned uncles shall ride free,
From cushioned seat look down his nose at me?
“Yes: when he passes, check your accusation:
Don’t denounce him; that’s called defamation.
Better write of Turnus’ bravery
Or of Aeneas; there’s no obloquy
In how Achilles died, or Hylas slipped
Though much sought-for, and down that well got dipped.
But when like some hot blade Lucilius clashes,
Frigid teeth the guilty listener gnashes,
Breaking out in spiritual rashes.
Think it through, then, ere the trumpets sound;
The helmet donned, your foes you must confound.”
I’ll guess I’ll treat of men of olden days,
Guests of the Latin and Flaminian Ways.

William Gifford (1802)

Shall I but hear still, never quit the score,
Vexed with hoarse Cordus' Theseid o'er and o'er?
Shall he unpunished read to me his plays,
His elegies? Huge Telephus whole days
Unpunished spend? Or vast Orestes writ
O' th' sides, indorsed too, and not finished yet?
No man his own house better knows than I
The grove of Mars, and Vulcan's grotto nigh
Th' Aeolian cliffs; what stirs the winds, what pains
Aeacus inflicts on souls, what thief obtains
The Golden Fleece, what fair young ashes fly
From Centaurs' hands; these Fronto's plane trees cry,
And marble pillars with fierce reading burst:
Y' have these from the best poets, and the worst.

We therefore from the ferula have took
Our hand, and those vain hortatives forsook
Wherein we counseled Sulla to become
A private man and sleep secure at home.
Sinse most you meet are Poets, to forebear
Paper that must be spoiled, fond pity were.
But why the great Auruncan's way we go,
If you're at leisure and disposed, we'll show.
When the soft Eunuch marries, Maevia gores,
Bare-breasted, with her spear, the Tuscan boars;
When all the Senate's wealth outvied by one
Who to my youthful beard, offensive grown,
Correction with his nimble scissors gave;
When part of Nile's slime, that Canopian slave
Crispinus, flaunts it in his purple cloak,
Which flying back his shoulders still revoke,
A summer-hoop his sweathy finger swing,
Nor brooks a heavier stone should load his ring.
'Tis hard not to write Satires: for what's he
Of such a stupid patience to be
By this corrupted city so controlled?
Or who so made of iron that can hold?
When, filled with 's own bulk, in his new sedan,
Matho the lawyer comes, and then the man
That his great friend accused, and will the rest
O' th' spared nobility ere long digest,
Whom Massa fears, Carus with gifts attends,
And Thymile, whom awed Latinus sends;
When they shall jostle thee out of thy right
That labour for their legacies by nigh,
Whom (the best way to rise) th' old lady sets
In Heav'n: a poor ounce Proculeius gets,
Gill 'leven ounces, each his weight and measure
Heirs to her to wealth as they advanced her pleasure:
The price of his blood wasted let him take
And turn as pale as he that on a snake
With naked feet improvidently treads,
Or he in Lyons who at the altar pleads.
What fury, think you, my parched liver boils
When with his train the people's walk he spoils
That robbed the orphan, beggared now? When this
Condemned by sentence but not punished is?
For what's the harm that infamy can do
The purse-safe? Th' exile Marius quaffs at two,
From th' angry gods he hath a blessing won,
But you, victorious province, art undone.

Are not these, Horace, worthy of thy Muse?
Shall I waive these? What should I rather choose?
The Tale of Diomed or Hercules,
The Minotaur, the boy that in the sea
Died fluttering, or the man of art that flies?
While the pimp takes that which the law denies
His wife should have, th' adulterer's estate,
The pimp that learnedly can speculate
The chamber-ceiling and o'er liquor shows
The trick of sleeping with a waking nose;
When for a regiment of foot he stands
Whose stable hath devoured his house and lands,
That has not left of 's father's wealth to lay
One wager, whilst in the Flaminian Way
So flyingly he whirls his chariot on;
Nay, when he was the boy Automedon,
He held the reins, did his own jockey act,
And of himself t' his mantled mistress cracked.
Would it not make one tome's and satire's fill
I' th' high ways when that forger of the will,
Borne upon six men's shoulders (on both sides
The curtains tucked up, windows open) rides
Lolling Maecenas' like, a blessèd rise
Got by a wet gem and parchment in a trice.
There's the great lady that for rich wine brought
Her thirsty husband poison, and hath taught
(Subtler Locusta) her rude neighbours how
Through fame and men to bear black corpses now.
Do what short Giarus or chains deserves
If thou 'lt be made by 't: virtue's praised but starves.
Their fair piles, gardens, tables vice serves up,
Old plate, and goats that seem t' outstride the cup,
For fathers-in-law that covetous daughters keep,
Base brides, loose Praetextati, who can sleep?
If nature will not, scorn a verse indicts,
Such stuff as I, or Cluvienus, writes.
Ere since Deucalion in the swollen flood
Sailed to that oracle o' th mountain stood,
Since in soft stones a warm soul gently flowed,
And naked maids to men wise Pyrrha showed,
What men do, their hopes, fears, distastes, contents,
Sports, fates, the medley is our book presents.

And when was sin more fruitful, Avarice
Raised to so high a pitch? When were the dice
In such request? Nor do our gamesters lay
Their purses down, but set their trunks at play.
What battles their arms-bearing stewards fight,
You see; and do you think his senses right,
Can at one throw eight hundred pieces lose,
Nor pays his shivering man the coat he owes?
Who built so many villas? When was it known
Our fathers on seven dishes supped alone?
A little basket now before the door
They set forth to be scrambled for by th' Poor;
But first he views your face for fear you crave
By some false name; if known, your alms you have.
Our ancient Trojans summoned are aloud,
For they themselves with us the threshold crowd:
Give to the Praetor, give the Tribune hold:
The freedman's first: "I came first, I'll be bold
(Why not?) to take place, though a neighbour born
T' Euphrates, as these marks of slavery torn
In both my ears confess, though I deny;
Five houses worth three thousand pound have I;
To make a gentleman what more's required?
Is not Corvinum near Laurentum hired
To keep sheep? I more riches have attained
Than e'er my predecessour Pallas gained;
The Licini ne'er knew so great a sum."
Then let the Tribunes stay, let wealth o'ercome,
Nor sacred honour yield to him whose feet
Chalked o'er for sale did first our pavement greet.
For here to money's majesty we yield
Divine respects though, fatal gold, we build
To thee no temples yet, though silver hath
No altars like to those of Virtue, Faith,
Peace, Victory, and Concord that so creaks
When to the stork her nest a welcome speaks.
But in their year's accounts when our great men
Th' alms-basket sum, what may their clients then?
Whose old shoes hang here, there a kind of cloak,
And nothing else i' th' house but bread and smoke.
Sedan-fulls for these hundred farthings throng:
He beats his pregnant or pale wife along,
He begs for th' absent; ah, the trick now known,
An empty dole-share for his wife is thrown;
"My Galla's here." "Dispatch her." "Why dost stay?"
"Let's see her." "She sleeps, trouble her not, I pray."

The day's spent rarely, first th' alms-basket's vexed,
The forum, counsellor Apollo next,
And our triumphal marbles, where I mark
One stiled th' Egyptian, or the Arabarch,
Of whom I know no more but only this,
You may against his statue more than piss.
Th' old clients, tired, march from their patron's gate,
Where they long time did for a supper wait
But now lay down that flattering desire:
Vain hopes of men! They must buy roots and fire.
Meantime their prince hath served up to his board
All rarities the seas and woods afford:
On 's empty beds his ease he only takes,
And of so many old fair large tables makes
His choice of one to hold his various meats,
And there alone his patrimony eats;
He'll not allow the parasite a place;
Who can endure a luxury so base?
Huge gluttony t' engross whole boars, a beast
That only was created for a feast!
But swift's thy plague when, swelling and undressed,
Thou bath'd crude peacock which thou 'lt ne'er digest;
Thus youth untimely, age intestate dies:
Now the sad news to every table flies
And at these funerals their angry friends
Applaud the justice of such fearful ends.

Posterity can no new vices frame:
Our nephews will but wish and act the same.
All sins are at their zenith. Muse, away,
Haul sail, spread all they canvas. "Poet, stay,
Where's wit to suit the matter, where's th' old kind
Of writing whatsoever vexed the mind?
That liberty, whose name we scarce dare use?
All's one if Mutius cavil or excuse;
Touch Tigellinus and thou shalt expire,
Wrapped up in pitch and flax, and set on fire,
Like those with propped-up throats, that smoking stand,
Who, dragged to execution, ploughed the sand."
What, he that poisoned his three uncles, borne
On 's pendent couch, thy death shall laugh to scorn.
"If he comes, lay they finger o'er thy lips:
Th' informer catches the least word that slips.
Aeneas thou mayst safely bring to fight
With famous Turnus, and move no man's spite;
Achilles flame hurts no one, Hylas gone
After his broken pitcher troubles none.
But when Lucilius as with brandished steel
Prints his hot fury, he whose spirits feel
Cold guilt his crimes laid open blustering hears,
His conscious entrails sweat; hence rage and tears.
These things before the trumpet sounds debate;
The plumèd combatant reprents too late."
Well then, I'll try what we of those may say
Interred in th' Latin, and Flaminian Way.